Topic ID #27824 - posted 3/22/2013 11:49 AM

Bolivian Mitochondrial and Autosomal DNAs



Charlie Hatchett

The Genetic Legacy of the Pre-Colonial Period in Contemporary Bolivians
Taboada-Echalar et al.

Abstract
Only a few genetic studies have been carried out to date in Bolivia. However,
some of the most important (pre)historical enclaves of South America were
located in these territories. Thus, the (sub)-Andean region of Bolivia was part
of the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. We have
genotyped the first hypervariable region (HVS-I) of 720 samples representing the
main regions in Bolivia, and these data have been analyzed in the context of
other pan-American samples (>19,000 HVS-I mtDNAs). Entire mtDNA genome
sequencing was also undertaken on selected Native American lineages.
Additionally, a panel of 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was genotyped in
a sub-set of samples. The vast majority of the Bolivian mtDNAs (98.4%) were
found to belong to the main Native American haplogroups (A: 14.3%, B: 52.6%, C:
21.9%, D: 9.6%), with little indication of sub-Saharan and/or European lineages;
however, marked patterns of haplogroup frequencies between main regions exist
(e.g. haplogroup B: Andean [71%], Sub-Andean [61%], Llanos [32%]). Analysis of
entire genomes unraveled the phylogenetic characteristics of three Native
haplogroups: the pan-American haplogroup B2b (originated ~21.4 thousand years
ago [kya]), A2ah (~5.2 kya), and B2o (~2.6 kya). The data suggest that B2b could
have arisen in North California (an origin even in the north most region of the
American continent cannot be disregarded), moved southward following the Pacific
coastline and crossed Meso-America. Then, it most likely spread into South
America following two routes: the Pacific path towards Peru and Bolivia
(arriving here at about ~15.2 kya), and the Amazonian route of Venezuela and
Brazil southwards. In contrast to the mtDNA, Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)
reveal a higher (although geographically variable) European introgression in
Bolivians (25%). Bolivia shows a decreasing autosomal molecular diversity
pattern along the longitudinal axis, from the Altiplano to the lowlands. Both
autosomes and mtDNA revealed a low impact (1–2%) of a sub-Saharan component in
Bolivians.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0058980


Charlie Hatchett

www.pre-clovis.com
www.forum.pre-clovis.com
www.blog.pre-clovis.com




Post ID#20068 - replied 4/1/2013 9:26 PM



n8rlvr

Thank you for finding and sharing this article Charlie. 

Becky Hopkins

Post ID#20070 - replied 4/3/2013 5:02 AM



Charlie Hatchett

No problem, Becky.

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