Topic ID #31722 - posted 3/11/2014 7:53 PM

Out of Beringia? Not likely.

Charlie Hatchett

Out of Beringia?

A shrub tundra refugium on the Bering land bridge may have played a pivotal role in the peopling of the Americas

"...Based on the distribution of tundra plants around the Bering Strait region..."

Really? That's it?

"...Genetic evidence suggests that most Native Americans are descended from a population that was isolated somewhere between northeast Asia and Alaska during the LGM..."

Absolutely no evidence to support this claim. Much evidence to the contrary.

"...The analysis of ancient DNA from human skeletal remains dating to 24,000 cal BP from Mal’ta in southern Siberia appears to confirm the pre-LGM divergence of Native Americans from their Asian parent haplogroups..."

1. Mal'ta is southern Siberia, not between northeast Asia and Alaska.

2. "...The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at
high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers, and the Y
chromosome of MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and near the root of most
Native American lineages. Similarly, we find autosomal evidence that MA-1 is basal to modern-day western Eurasians and genetically closely related to modern-day Native Americans, with no close affinity to east Asians..."

M. Raghavan et al., Nature 505, 87 (2014).

3. MA-1 was clearly part of a Gravettian culture, which most scholars agree
originated in southwestern Europe/ Iberia. This is concordant with MA-1's
genetic signature.

"...At the same time, dated archaeological and human remains indicate that settlement of the Western Hemisphere probably took place after the LGM..."

I disagree:

"...At Meadowcroft Rockshelter, artifacts occur in sediments that may be as old as 22 to 18 ka..."

"...Cactus Hill...Three 14C dates ranging from 20 to 18 ka are reported from the levels below Clovis...luminescence dates on the aeolian sands correlate with the older 14C results and indicate minimal mixing of the sediments...biface and blade assemblage stratigraphically below the site’s Clovis assemblage is compelling..."

"...La Sena and Lovewell sites that date from 22 to 19 ka...many of the leg bones display percussion impact and flaking, which suggests that they were quarried and flaked by humans while they were in a fresh, green state, within a few years of the death of the animals..."

T. Goebel et al., Science 319, 1497 (2008).

"...Previous radiocarbon dating had obtained only lower limits of 40–45 ka BP for the Pedra
Furada basal layer. Nine charcoal samples from well-structured hearths were subjected to
the ABOX-SC procedure and their radiocarbon content determined by accelerator mass
spectrometry. Measurements on five of the samples returned ages of greater than 56 ka BP,
from graphites produced from ABOX pre-treated charcoal combusted at 910C. Two other
samples were greater than 50 ka BP. The remaining two samples were essentially completely
combusted at 650C, with no material surviving to make a 910 C CO2 fraction. Their ages
were 41.3 and 47.2 ka BP. Ages obtained from graphites generated from the 650C combusted
fraction are considered minimum ages..."

A revised chronology of the lowest occupation layer of Pedra Furada Rock Shelter, Piaui, Brazil: The Pleistocene peopling of the Americas. Santos et al. (2003)

I could go on citing...

"...The shrub tundra zone in central Beringia represents the most plausible home for the isolated standstill population. Although high-latitude archaeological sites of LGM age are unknown, postglacial submergence of the Bering land bridge would explain the absence of traces of people concentrated in central Beringia...."

"...To confirm the hypothesis, archaeological sites of LGM age must be documented in Beringia..."

A whole bunch of them to support this hypothesis.

Charlie Hatchett


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